The world's first 'Twitter Revolution,' Chisinau, April 2009.
Last night I was talking Iran with some Ukrainians who took part in their own Color Revolution, the 2004 Orange version. Between sips of a bitter local brew, they reminisced about realtime reporting and SMS strategies like they were old school- like, sooo... pre-Twitter.
Overblown as the role of digital technology in protest movements seems to be (vs. will, access, funding, education...), their histories must indeed be instructive for the current moment. And the strategies of this "first online revolution" have been explored in detail by Harvard Internet and Democracy guru Joshua Goldstein, here.
Ukraine's elaborate 2004 election protests were among the first to be organized with the help of the internet (photo by Janice Papar).
Protester's now famous Tent City on Kiev's main avenue during the 2004 Orange Revolution (photo by Janice Papar).
Meanwhile, five years and a few color revolutions later, Andrew from Romania at Web Upd8 mused, "If you asked me about the prospects of a Twitter driven revolution in a lo-tech country like Moldova a week ago, my answer would probably be a qualified 'no.' Today, however, I am no longer certain."
Twitter was incorporated into the Moldavian protest strategy months before Iran.
That was on April 7th, months before the current Twitter-fueled situation in Iran began to unfold. Moldavian reformers had already added to the Ukrainian model. And the results were mixed. More on the role of Twitter, texts and blogs, etc. in Moldova's 2009 insurrection, here. And on strategies and potentials of digital activism in general, here.
Intimate portraits reduced to decisive line and shade... It was only natural, considering Warhol spent many a morning staring at the neighborhood iconostasis while growing up in a Slavic ghetto of Pittsburgh.
Byzantine icon: Image of Edessa or Holy Mandolion ("miraculous image made without hands")
Self Portrait (1986) by Andy Warhol (made with hands?)
This fascinating diffusion of cultures is captured in a documentary by Stanislaw Mucha, in which:
"he traces the family roots of the American pop artist Andy Warhol back to two ethnic Ukrainian villages in Slovakia. There he finds Warhol’s eccentric relatives, all of whom treat the famous hometown boy with pride even though none of them has actually known him or understands his art. They know so little of him that when Warhol sends original art work to his relatives, they use the art as clothing for children’s toys. With gentle humanism, the film gravitates from the art of Warhol to the lives of his relatives – characters in their own right. We see the “artfulness” with which they come to grips with their everyday lives and the strange outside world. These villagers’ healthy attitude towards art, life and the encroaching modern world makes Absolute Warhol a buoyant documentary."
After a few weeks of uninspired movie-watching, I ran into a batch of regional gems. I will begin with Soviet horror classic, a Gogol adaptation lit up by effects master Aleksandr Ptushko, "Viy" (1967):
"This Russian film adaptation of Nikolai Gogol's story was for a long time the only horror film made in the Soviet Union. Khoma (Leonid Kuravlev), a young novice, travels across the countryside and stays for a night in a barn that belongs to an ugly old woman. When she attacks him at night and takes him for a broom ride, the scared novice fatally wounds her, and before she dies, she turns into a beautiful young noblewoman (Natalya Varley). The latter leaves a will, according to which Khoma should pray for her for three nights in the chapel until her body is buried. At night, the witch rises from the coffin and tries to catch Khoma. She flies around but she can't reach him or see him because he stays inside the circle that he has drawn around himself. During the third and last night, the witch makes the last attempt to scare him out of the circle, and she calls all sorts of ugly creatures to help her... Gogol wrote several stories based on Ukrainian folklore, many of them dealing with the Devil and the supernatural." -from Allmovie.com
The following is the beginning of the climax, as the witch summons her horde of demons. Dig the stellar and (and genuinely creepy) retro effects work and early Sam Raimi vibe (flavors of Evil Dead?):
Urban snapshots taken on whim (click to enlarge)...
I stole these while looking for old wooden churches on the edge of Drohobych, Ukraine. The city went from Central Euro charm to industrial wasteland quick. Like, one block-quick. And amidst a few traces of remaining terrestrial life, some amazing pieces of history are hidden out there:
The beginning of the edge...
Where sidewalks become makeshift junk markets.
Amidst the remnants...
...Holy Cross church pokes its central tower up from a deserted village-cum-factory complex.
While the wooden domes of St. George fight a losing battle with a Ukrainian chop shop (click to enlarge- they are scrunched between garage roof and oak tree).
Enter 15th century courtyard... historic vertigo now complete.
...and then it always seems to end with a gypsy bus back.
------- The photographer is an armed version of the solitary walker reconnoitering, stalking, cruising the urban inferno, the voyeuristic stroller who discovers the city as a landscape of voluptuous extremes. Adept of the joys of watching, connoisseur of empathy, the flâneur finds the world 'picturesque.'
-Susan Sontag, on how the camera has become the tool of the flâneur